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This information was automatically generated from data provided by MOA: University of British Columbia. It has been standardized to aid in finding and grouping information within the RRN. Accuracy and meaning should be verified from the Data Source tab.


Goldtone (orotone) photographic print on glass in original frame. Image shows a cloudy sky and grassy plain with hills in the background, towards the sides of the print. In the middle ground, there are three figures on horseback. In the foreground, towards the right side of the print, there is a small oval-shaped pond. The artist signature is in the bottom right corner. The wide frame is painted dark brown and gold, with a pattern. The corners of the frame have dark gold batwing designs done in high relief. The frame's outer rim curves downwards and then upward towards the inner rim, which edges the photographic print. The back of the frame is covered in brown paper. On the back, in the top left corner, the photograph title is printed on plain paper. The artist’s studio mark is attached to the top right corner. There is hanging hardware close to the top.

Specific Techniques

The goldstone process Curtis used was to take a clear plate of optical glass and spread a liquid emulsion onto the surface of the plate. Curtis then projected his negative image onto the glass to create a positive one. He mixed a combination of banana oils and bronzing powders to create the goldstone effect, and then spread the mixture onto the dried emulsion. The final stage was backing the glass image so that all the chemicals bonded together.


Edward Curtis photographed this image in 1900 when, by invitation of George Grinnell, he visited the Piegan Reservation in Montana to photograph the Sun Dance ceremony. While the photograph was taken by Curtis in 1900, this copy was printed sometime between 1905-1920 in his Seattle studio.

Item History

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